Climate change and cultural element of the French coasts

Introduction

Since the beginning of civilizations, Man has learned to inhabit the coasts and to take advantage of the resources and advantages they offer him. Local commerce, international exchanges and tourism pace the life of these very specific places and have created over time a large cultural heritage.
Today, all around the world, a large part of these marine spaces, their fauna and flora seem to be impacted by the climate changes that the world is experiencing.
France, the study area of ​​this project, is no exception to the situation. We will therefore attempt to highlight the impacts of climate change on the cultural and historical heritage of the French coasts.

Continue reading “Climate change and cultural element of the French coasts”

Climate change impact on cultural and historical heritage of France

Since the earliest civilizations, humans have sought to inhabit the coast. Even today, it plays a crucial role for those countries that have it.

In France, the coast has been at the heart of many historical events which today constitute the historical heritage of the French coasts. To this historical aspect is added more local events and customs linking the sides to the population that exploits it and making it specific places, it is the cultural heritage.

With these two concepts, we will study the impact that climate change can have on this legacy.

Our study area will therefore be the entirety of the French mainland coasts. Located at the western end of Europe, France is fortunate to have coasts on the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and the English Channel.

  • Population: 68,014,000 inhabitants
  • Area: 543,940 km²
  • Maritime area: 371,096 km²
  • Coastline length: 5,853 km

Goal :

  • In our study area, the research made it possible to reference a large number of useful cultural elements such as lighthouses and ports or remarkable natural elements but also historical elements such as vestiges of wars or even caves and vestiges of the time from the Paleolithic. All this information will be integrated on a map to locate it.
  • Using information found on the internet, the coastline will be divided according to the different traditional names of the coasts.
  • Research and analysis of climate change data will then have to be done to find the most useful information for our project.
  • It will then be necessary to study them to find the effects on the elements of the cultural and historical heritage of the French coasts.

With the information gathered, it could be possible to categorize the elements by severity of the risks due to climate change and thus anticipate their protection.

Links :

https://emodnet-humanactivities.eu/view-data.php

https://www.emodnet-biology.eu

https://www.copernicus.eu/en

https://www.data.gouv.fr

France : In balance between ecology and economy

With these more than 67 million inhabitants, France is one of the most important European countries demographically and economically. Its colonialist history has enabled it to acquire many territories in the four corners of the globe, bringing its total surface area to nearly 672,000 km² (including 552,000 km² in mainland France).

Each territory brings its culture, its fauna and its flora of the seas. Thus we count more than 18,000 km of coastline under French jurisdiction (including 5,853 km in mainland France). We thus reach 10,900,000 km² of French maritime space (including 371,000 km² in mainland France) which is the second largest area after the United States.

Located in the east of the European continent, its geographical location offers it a great openness to the world thanks to its many coasts. Indeed, it is fortunate to be in contact with the Atlantic Ocean which opens the maritime routes to the American continent but also with the Mediterranean Sea which gives access to the entire Mediterranean basin as well as to the Asian continent. Finally, the Channel and the North Sea allow it to open up trade routes with the Scandinavian countries.

The French coast therefore brings a real commercial stake for the country. However, they also need to be balanced with more local uses. France also uses its coasts a lot for tourist purposes. Thus we see more and more protected areas being created in order to safeguard the biological wealth that they contain from human overactivity and its ecological impact.

First of all on EMODnet, we can find interesting data on:

– Human activities such as maritime routes, main ports, protected areas or aquaculture areas.

– Geological data such as the erosion of the dimensions or their composition.

– Biological data with the census of animal species and seabed habitats.

In conjunction with the meteorological data offered by Copernicus such as water temperatures, surface altitude or even currents and winds, this information will make it possible to identify the probable impacts of human activities and global warming on the economic and ecological health of the French coasts.

Links :
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Littoral_fran%C3%A7ais
https://www.geoportail.gouv.fr/carte
https://emodnet.ec.europa.eu/en/portals
https://www.copernicus.eu/en
http://observatoires-littoral.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/chiffres-cles-r9.html#:~:text=Le%20littoral%20de%20France%20m%C3%A9tropolitaine,de%20c%C3%B4tes%20dites%20%C2%AB%20artificialis%C3%A9es%20%C2%BB.

THE SUNKEN LIGHTHOUSE – Towards quieter seas

Noise pollution of the sea by human activities is a very large problem. Indeed, the world fleet has seen its number of ships increase by more than 11% between 2013 andCohabitation with marine species inhabiting the waters of the globe is therefore becoming more and more complicated because many marine species use sound to locate, communicate and even hunt. Their life is thus disturbed by the actions of the man. This is particularly the case with the dolphins and whales. In the méditerranean, a sanctuary has been created between France, Italy and Corsica to preserve this species : The Pelagos Sanctuary. Nevertheless this space is enormously frequented by cruise ships andcommercial cargo ships.
By working with scientists, GIS could allow a better cohabitation between marine fauna and
humans.

Nowadays, scientists use GPS tracking on animals extensively to monitor and study their movements. Knowing the habits and movements of groups of individuals is data that can be useful in the design of GIS. Put in relation with the positioning of the maritime routes, this information will then be used to adapt the speed and the trajectory of the ships and thus reduce the noise pollution near the groups of Pelagos whose position is known.
Nevertheless, will companies be ready to lengthen travel times or to spend more fuel on changes in trajectories ?

We will therefore create maps grouping the main routes used by ships, the areas known as the point of regrouping of Pelagos groups and finally almost real-time GPS positioning of a maximum of Pelagos groups.
In our case we are studying a very specific part of the world but this principle could be applied to places most affected by noise pollution.


https://www.msp-platform.eu/story-1-franceitaly-transport-and-conservation
https://www.emodnet-humanactivities.eu/view-data.php
https://www.hhr.org.au/
http://www.cetaceanhabitat.org/pelagos.php